Foundation Design Philosophy for Process
you a young dynamic Civil Engineer, just came out from the
unversity and have started your career as Junior Design Engineer? Are
you working in Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals refinery and Fossil
Plant? Then you have reached at right place. In this web
have explained the load calculation and basic concept of
foundation & structure design step by step. You
can discuss this among your friends and with
Lead/Supervisor Engineers.You can also create your own design
spread sheet as I explained in this forum and discuss with Experienced
senior Engineers before applying it to your project.
This site is
generated based on my experiences in Civil
Engineering design. You can write me back for any question regarding
This site has no commercial value
and it is
you go to any Petrochemical facilities, Refinery, Chemical Plant, Gas
Development plant, LNG Plant or any Oil & Sand Plant, you will
most commonly the following equipment and structures:
addition to that, you will find a cogeneration plant to generate
process steam and power supply for the plant. In adjacent to this plant
you will find different types of transformer for maintaining the plant
voltage and also find a substation for power distribution.
If you like to know more about substation equipment and structure please
click here and read the documents specially 1724E-200 and
- Tall tower or vertical
vessel resting on foundation and on structure.
- Some Horizontal Drums
or Horizontal vessels resting on foundation and on structure.
- Some cooling system like Shell
and tube Exchanger or Plate
resting on foundation and on structure. You will also find
fan Cooler which is most of the time is located on top of Pipe rack and
some times on concrete foundation.
- Different types of pumps
- Low speed, medium speed and high speed with light weight to heavy
weight resting on foundation.
Tank Farm area,
showing no. of tanks. If this is a LNG Plant, you will
find Cryogenic tank to store liquid in sub-zero temperature.
- Miscellaneous Static
Equipment Skid, resting on concrete foundation.
rack, inside the process unit and as well as connecting
process units. Please remember that Pipe rack is the artery of a plant.
These pipe racks carry all types of pipes and electrical
trays from one process unit to other process units. So whenever, you
design a pipe rack , keep in mind the importance of its use.
structures : Control room (Mainly blast proof), Laboratory
Buildings, Shed/shelter for different chemical skid, Equipment
supporting structures etc.
- Concrete sump, with or without baffle wall for
storage water and chemicals. Sometimes these sumps are as big as pond.
stack, far away from main process plant. Most of the cases
is 100 m. There are different types of stack supporting system. Most
are guided by 3 ropes at an angle of 60 degree to each other. If the
stack height is less, then stack may be a self supporting
resting on a concrete foundation. If the stack is made up of FRP
materials then a 3 legged structure is needed around the stack to hold
this at proper position.
ponds for collecting rainwater and process water for evaporation.
these ponds are called as Evaporation Pond. These are mainly earthen
pond with impermeable liner (Geo-textile
liner) on all
of the pond. This impermeable liner is very important to protect the
ground water from contamination. If you would like to know more about
rules and regulations of General
Civil Works please click here and read all the directives.
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part of this page without written permission from Subhro Roy.
This page is prepared based on experience on Civil Engineering Design.
All definitions and most of the explanations are taken from different
text books and international design codes, which are referenced in the
contents. Any similarity of the content or part of with any company
document is simply a coincidence. Subhro Roy is not responsible for